🌹Name: Al-Hussain ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (A.S.) Mother: Fatimah Az-Zahra (A.S.), the daughter of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu 'Abdillah.
Laqab (Title): Al Sibt, Shahid-e-Karbala.
Birth: He was born in Medina at the month of Shaban in 4th of A.H.
Martyrdom: He was martyred with his companions by the army of Yazid in the month of Muharram 61 A.H. His shrine is in Karbala, a city in Iraq.
Imam Hussain (A.S.) was born on the 3rd of Sha'ban, in 4th year of Hijrah in Medina. When the Prophet (PBUH) heard the news of Imam Hussain's birth, became very happy and came to the house of Fatima (A.S.).
Asma, the maidservant of Fatima covered the child in a white cloth and brought him to the Prophet (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH) picked the child up in his lap and recited the Azaan in his right ear and iqamah in the left one. As if, apparently, he (PBUH) made him familiar and acquainted with the name of Allah for the first time.
On the seventh day of his birth, an angel was sent down and told the Prophet(PBUH) : "Just as Haroon was a brother, sympathizer, and helper in each and every difficulties of Moses (PBUH) Ali (A.S.) is your sympathizer, helper and brother in each and every difficulties that you might have. Therefore, put the name of this baby as the name of Haroon's son "Shabeer," which is called in Arabic as 'Hussain'. Thus the name of the second child of Fatima (A.S.) was also selected by God.
Imam Hussain(A.S.) was Imam for a period of ten years, and its last six months was coinciding with the time of caliphate of Mu'awiyah. Imam Hussain lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost most of their value and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power. Secondly, Mu'awiyah and his aides did all the possible means to put aside and move out the traditions of the Household(Ahlol Bait) of the Prophet (PBUH) and the Shi'a's , and thus obliterate the name of Ali and his family. And above all, Mu'awiyah wanted to strengthen the basis of the caliphate of his son, Yazid, because of his lack of principles and scruples which was opposed by a large group of Muslims. Therefore, in order to quell all opposition, Mu'awiyah had undertaken newer and more severe measures. Through force and necessity Imam Hussain had to endure these days and to tolerate every kind of mental and spiritual agony and affliction from Mu'awiyah and his aides, until in the middle of the year 60 A.H. Mu'awiyah died and his son Yazid reached his status.
✅Accepting allegiance (bay'ah) was an old Arab practice which was carried out in important matters such as that of kingship and governorship. Those who were ruled, and especially the well-known among them, would give their hand in alleging, agreement and obedience to their king or prince and in this way would show their support for his actions. Disagreement after allegiance was considered as disgrace and dishonour for a people and it was like breaking an agreement after having signed it officially, it was considered as a definite crime. Following the example of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), people believed that allegiance, when given by free will but not through force, carried authority and value.
Mu'awiyah had asked the well-known among the people to give their allegiance to Yazid, but had not imposed this request upon Imam Hussain. He had specifically told Yazid in his last will that if Hussain refused to pay allegiance he should pass over it in silence and overlook the matter, for he had understood correctly the disastrous consequences which would follow if the issue were to be pressed. But because of his egoism and recklessness, Yazid neglected his father's advice and immediately after the death of his father ordered the governor of Medina to either force a pledge of allegiance to Imam Hussain or send his head to Damascus. After the governor of Medina informed Imam Hussain about his demand, the Imam asked for a delay to think about it.
😭😭😭Then he started his journey with his family toward Mecca. He sought refuge in the sanctuary of God while there is the official place of refuge and security in Islam. This event occurred toward the end of the month of Rajab and the beginning of Sha'ban of 60 A.H. For nearly four months Imam Hussain stayed in Mecca in refuge. These news spread throughout the Islamic world. On the one hand many people who were tired of the iniquities of Mu'awiyah's rule and were even more dissatisfied when Yazid became caliphe, corresponded with Imam Hussain and expressed their sympathy for him. On the other hand a flood of letters began to flow, especially from Iraq and particularly the city of Kufa, inviting the Imam to go to Iraq and accept the leadership of the populace there with the aim of beginning an uprising to overcome injustice and iniquity. Naturally such a situation was dangerous for Yazid.
Imam Hussain remained in Mecca until the season for pilgrimage when Muslims from all over the world came in groups into Mecca in order to perform the rites of the Hajj. Imam understood that some of the followers of Yazid had entered Mecca as pilgrims (Hajjis) with the mission to kill him during the rites of Hajj with arms they carried under their special pilgrimage dress (Ihram). Imam shortened his pilgrimage rites and decided to leave.
😭😭😭Amidst the vast crowd of people, he stood up and in a short speech announced that he was setting out for Iraq. In this short speech he also declared that he would be martyred and asked Muslims to help him in attaining his aim and to offer their lives in the path of God. The next day he left from there with his family and a group of his companions to Iraq.
😭😭😭Imam Hussain was determined not to give his allegiance to Yazid and knew full well that he would be killed. 😭He was aware that his death was inevitable in the face of the awesome military power of the Umayyads, supported as it was by corruption in certain sectors, spiritual decline, and lack of will power among the people, especially in Iraq. Some of the outstanding people of Mecca stood by the way of Imam Hussain and warned him about the danger that he is going to face. But he answered that he refused to pay allegiance and give his approval to a government of injustice and tyranny. He added that he knew that wherever he turns to he would be killed anyway.
😭❤️He would leave Mecca in order to preserve the respect of Kaaba(house of God) and not to allow this respect to be destroyed by having his blood to be shed there. While on the way to Kufa and still a few days' journey away from the city, he received the news that the followers of Yazid in Kufa had killed the representative of Imam in that city and also one of the Imam's determined supporters who was a well-known man in Kufa. Their feet had been tied and they had been dragged through the streets. The city and its surroundings were placed under strict observation and countless soldiers of the enemy that were awaiting him, there was no way open to him but to march ahead and to face death. It was- at this point that Imam expressed his definitive determination to go ahead and to be martyred; then he continued his journey.
Approximately seventy kilometers from Kufa, in a desert named Karbala, the Imam and his Sahebe(companions) were surrounded by the army of Yazid. For eight days, they stayed in this spot during while their circle narrowed and the number of the enemy's army increased. At last, the Imam, his household and a small numbers of his companions were encircled by an army of thirty thousand soldiers of Yazid. During these days the Imam fortified his position and his real companions were selected by God.
😭At night he called his companions and during a short speech stated that there was nothing ahead but death and martyrdom. He added that since the enemy was concerned only with him he would free them from all obligations so that anyone who wishs to go back he could escape in the darkness of the night and save his life. Then he ordered the lights to be turned off. Then most of his companions, who had joined him for their own benefits were dispersed. Only a handful of those who loved the truth--about forty of his close aides--and some of the Banu Hashim remained there.
😭Once again the Imam assembled those who were left and put them to a test. He addressed his companions and Hashimite relatives, saying again that the enemy was concerned only with his person. Each could benefit from the darkness of the night and escape the danger. But this time the faithful companions of the Imam answered each in his own way that they would not deviate for a moment from the path of truth of which the Imam was its leader and that they would never leave him alone. They said that they would defend his household to the last drop of their blood and as long as they could carry a sword.
😭On the ninth day of the month of Moharam, the last challenge to choose between "allegiance or war" was announced by the enemy . The Imam asked for a delay in order to worship overnight and to become more determined to enter the battle on the next day.
✅On the tenth day of Muharram of the year 61/680 the Imam lined up before the enemy with his small band of followers, about 72 persons consisting of forty of his companions, thirty some members of the army of the enemy that joined him during the night and day of war, and his Hashimite family of children, brothers, nephews, nieces and cousins. 😭That day they fought from morning until their final breath, the Imam, the young Hashimites and the companions were all martyred. Among those killed were two children of Imam Hasan, who were only thirteen and eleven years old; and a five-year-old child and a suckling baby of Imam Hussain.
😭The army of the enemy, after ending the war, plundered the haram of Imam Hossain(A.S.) and burned his tents. They decapitated the bodies of the martyrs, denuded them and threw them to the ground without burial. Then they imprisoned and moved the members of the haram, all of whom were helpless women and girls, along with the heads of the martyrs to Kufa. Among the prisoners there were three male members: a twenty-two year old son of Imam Hussain who was very ill and unable to move, named Ali ibn Hussain(Imam Sajad A.S.), the fourth Imam; and his four year old son, Muhammad ibn Ali(Imam Bagher A.S.), who became the fifth Imam; and finally Hasan Muthanna, the son of the second Imam who was also the son-in-law of Imam Hussain and who, was wounded during the war, lay among the dead. They found him near death and through the intercession of one of the generals who did not cut off his head. Rather, they took him with the prisoners to Kufa and from there to Damascus before Yazid.
😭The event of Karbala, the capture of the women and children of the Household of the Prophet (PBUH), their being taken as prisoners from town to town and the speeches made by the daughter of Ali( Zaynab ), and the fourth Imam who were among the prisoners, disgraced the Umayyads. Such abuse of the Household of the Prophet (PBUH) annulled the propaganda which Mu'awiyah had carried out for years. The matter reached such proportions that Yazid in public disowned and condemned the actions of his agents in Karbala.
✅The event of Karbala was a major factor in the overthrow of Umayyad government and although its effect was delayed. It also strengthened the roots of The Followers of Ahlu Bayt. Among its immediate results were the revolts and rebellions combined with the bloody wars which were continued for twelve years. Among those who participated in killing the Imam none of therm could escape their revenge and punishment. Anyone who studies closely the history of the life of Imam Hussain(A.S.), Yazid, the conditions that prevailed at that time and the analyses of this chapter of the Islamic history, will have no doubt that in those circumstances there was no choice before Imam Hussain but to be killed. Swearing allegiance to Yazid would have meant publicly showing contempt for Islam, something which was not possible for the Imam, because Yazid not only showed his hate for Islam and its injunctions but also made a public demonstration of impudently, treading under his foot on its basis and its laws. Those before him, even if they opposed religious injunctions, always did so in the guise of religion, and at least formally respected religion. They took pride in being companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the other religious figures in whom people believed.
✅ So, it can be concluded that the claim of some interpreters of these events is false when they say that the two brothers, Hasan and Hussain, had two different tastes and that one chose the way of peace and the other the way of war, so that one brother made peace with Mu'awiyah although he had an army of forty thousand while the other went to war against Yazid with an army of forty. For we see that this same Imam Hussain, who refused to pay allegiance to Yazid for one day, lived for ten years under the rule of Mu'awiyah, in the same manner as his brother who also had endured for ten years under Mu'awiyah, without opposing him.
✅It must be said in truth that if Imam Hasan or Imam Hussain had fought Mu'awiyah they would have been killed without getting the least benefit for Islam.
✅ Their deaths would have had no effect before the righteous appearing policy of Mu'awiyah, a competent politician who emphasized on his being a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), the "scribe of the revelation," and "uncle of the faithful" and who used every possible stratagem to preserve a religious guise for his rule. Moreover, with his ability to set the stage to accomplish his desires he could have had them killed by their own people and then assumed a state of mourning and sought to revenge their blood, just as he sought to give such an impression that he was avenging the killing of the third caliph.